By Joseph F. O'Callaghan
By the center of the fourteenth century, Christian keep an eye on of the Iberian Peninsula prolonged to the borders of the emirate of Granada, whose Muslim rulers said Castilian suzerainty. now not threatened by way of Moroccan incursions, the kings of Castile have been diverted from finishing the Reconquest through civil warfare and conflicts with neighboring Christian kings. aware, even if, in their conventional target of recuperating lands previously governed by means of the Visigoths, whose heirs they claimed to be, the Castilian monarchs endured intermittently to attack Granada until eventually the overdue 15th century.
Matters replaced thereafter, while Fernando and Isabel introduced a decade-long attempt to subjugate Granada. using artillery and expending sizeable sums of cash, they methodically conquered each one Naṣrid stronghold until eventually the capitulation of town of Granada itself in 1492. potent army and naval association and entry to a range of monetary assets, joined with papal crusading merits, facilitated the ultimate conquest. all through, the Naṣrids had emphasised the urgency of a jihād waged opposed to the Christian infidels, whereas the Castilians affirmed that the expulsion of the "enemies of our Catholic religion" was once an important, simply, and holy reason. The essentially non secular personality of this final level of clash can't be doubted, Joseph F. O'Callaghan argues.